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The following has information gathered from PetPlace.com:

Demodectic Mange


Why some dogs develop demodicosis and others don't is not understood. It is thought to be genetic; affected dogs have an immune system defect that may be inherited, making it difficult to keep the mites under control.

There are different forms of this disease: localized and generalized.

Localized

This form usually occurs in dogs younger than one year of age. There is no breed or sex predilection. Affected animals are usually healthy and have developed demodicosis as the result of a temporary illness or a stressful event.

The first sign of localized mange might be thinning of the hair around the eyelids, lips, mouth and the front legs a typical moth-eaten appearance. Prognosis is usually very good, and most animals (90 percent) will recover spontaneously. About 10 percent usually will become generalized.

Generalized

Generalized demodicosis can begin as a localized case or can present itself as an acute illness. It is frequently categorized according to the age of the dog during the initial onset (juvenile or adult). The main distinction between the two types is the result of differences in predisposing factors and prognosis.

# Juvenile-onset generalized demodicosis has a more favorable prognosis. Most of them will "self cure" as their immune system matures, somewhere between eight months and three years, depending on the breed of the dog. Everyday Solutions Rx adds: To boost the immune system it is a good idea to give your pet healthy dog food and vitamins.

Afterall, dogs are just like humans...when we become sick, we boost our immune system by taking vitamins so it is good common sense to do everything you can to treat the PROBLEM not just the symptom! # Adult-onset generalized demodicosis has a more guarded prognosis.

These animals develop demodicosis as a consequence of another illness or immunosuppressive therapy. They do not have a genetic predilection for demodicosis. Conditions associated with adult onset demodicosis include cancer, endocrine disease, metabolic disease or steroid therapy. Prognosis depends on the underlying disease.

For the generalized form, a genetically inherited predisposition to the disease has been found. For this reason, affected animals should be neutered. Both females and males have the same ability to transmit genetic predisposition to demodicosis. The generalized form of the disease is much more difficult to resolve with therapy and relapses after discontinuation of therapy are common.

What to Watch For

Clinical signs consist of numerous patches that appear on the head, legs and trunk. These patches generally develop into large areas of hair loss, and the breakdown of skin leads to the formation of crusty sores.

Diagnosis

Demodicosis is diagnosed by the presence of symptoms and by performing deep skin scrapings on affected areas. The mites can be seen with the aid of a microscope. The mites are present on all dogs, so alone they do not constitute a diagnosis of mange. Treatment

Localized. If your dog has localized demodicosis, it is important to monitor him/her to establish whether the disease will stay localized or it will progress into the generalized form, as prognosis varies. You will be asked to bathe your dog using an antibacterial shampoo and apply a lotion/cream on the affected area. Your pet will need additional scrapings to monitor the progression or regression of the disease every 2 to 3 weeks for 2 times.

Generalized. If your dog has juvenile onset generalized demodicosis you will be advised to neuter your dog. Demodicosis can be an expensive and frustrating disease to treat thus it is important not to contribute to its perpetuation.

Treatment is necessary when disease is generalized. It includes the treatment of secondary bacterial infections and eradication of the mites.

If your dog is a collie, Sheltie or Australian shepherd, drugs like ivermectin should never be used because they have the potential of causing life threatening side effects in these breeds (tremors, seizures, coma and death). Other breeds may occasionally have problems with this type of medications but they are usually milder. They include difficulty walking, circling, weakness in the back legs and stumbling.

Sarcoptic Mange

Sarcoptic mange (also known as scabies) is a highly contagious parasitic disease caused by a microscopic mite called Sarcoptes scabiei that affects animals and people. These mites invade the skin of healthy dogs and puppies and create a variety of skin problems. Humans exposed to infested dogs commonly are affected.

Dogs of all ages may be affected, but sarcoptic mange is more common in young animals. Cats living in close contact with affected dogs may develop the disease. The mite prefers to live lives on the surface of the skin, and does not survive for very long off the host.

The hallmark of the disease is intense pruritus that does not respond to symptomatic treatment; the dog scratches and chews at himself. There may also be papules (small red bumps) located on the margins of the ears, elbows, hocks (ankles), chest and abdomen. These lesions may become generalized. Other symptoms may include patchy hair loss, and crusty sores. Symptoms are thought to be the result of a severe allergic reaction to the mite. Just a few mites can cause severe generalized pruritus (itchiness), which sometimes persists after therapy due to the allergic component of this disease. The incubation period (time until clinical symptoms become apparent) can be as long as 3 weeks after exposure.

If left untreated, chronic skin lesions develop including increased pigmentation, thickening and wrinkling of the skin, ulcerations and draining tracts. Secondary bacterial infections are common due to self-trauma.

Pruritic (itchy) papules (small red bumps) can be found on the arms, neck and waistline of affected humans. The sarcoptic mange mite of dogs cannot reproduce on human skin, and lesions on humans regress spontaneously in 12 to 14 days.

What to Watch For:

  • Intense itching

  • Presence of papules

  • Patchy hair loss

  • Crusty sores

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of sarcoptic mange is based on three things:

  • Suggestive clinical signs. The rapid onset of pruritis and the rapid progression of lesions should suggest scabies.

  • Microscopic examination of skin scrapings. Mites are occasionally found on microscopic examination of skin scrapings, but failure to find the mite should not eliminate the diagnosis of scabies.

  • Response to treatment. Treatment for scabies improves the condition.

Treatment

Treatment should be carried out for the entire life cycle of the mite, which is 3 weeks. All animals in the household should be treated to reduce the possibility of re-infestation. Everyday Solutions Rx Mange Cream works very quickly and is made with natural products plus we also carry non-toxic products to treat the environment at the same time. # Regular cleaning, vacuuming and washing of bedding usually are sufficient to rid the household of the mites.

Mites do not survive for long in the environment. Regular cleaning, vacuuming and washing of bedding usually are sufficient to rid the household of the mites. Remember, mites can be transmitted to humans, so care must be taken when handling an infested dog.

Preventative Care

Prevention consists of avoiding contact with infected animals. Mites do not survive very long in the environment, and direct contact is necessary to become infected. All animals in the household should be treated to reduce the possibility of re-infestation.

Cheyletiellosis

Cheyletiellosis is an itchy, scaling skin disease of cats and dogs caused by infestation with Cheyletiella mites. It is often called walking dandruff because when you examine an infested cat, you may see that the "dandruff" is moving. The movement is actually caused by the mites moving around under the scales. Although the mites inhabit the entire body, the scaling and itching often seem worse over the back.

Kittens and puppies seem to be more susceptible than older animals, but infestation of adults is sometimes seen. The mite is transmitted by close contact with infested animals. Since the mite can live for a few days off the host, it is also possible to become infected through environmental contamination. Poor sanitation and nutrition and overcrowding can lead to infestation.

The discomfort of itching and the lesions the animal can cause to himself by scratching is directly related to the impact of this disease on the cat.

What to Watch For:

  • Itchiness

  • Flaky skin, scaly hair coat

Diagnosis

A medical history may reveal a scaly, itchy skin problem on one or more of the animals in the home, often after a recent addition of a new pet. These mites can temporarily infest people, so you may experience an itchy rash on arms, belly, back and chest.

Your veterinarian will do a physical exam, which will probably reveal the characteristic scaly skin along the cat's back. However, not all animals show this distribution of lesions. These mites are large compared to other mites and in cases of heavy infestation, you can see them on the skin with a magnifying glass.

Other diagnostic tests may include:

Flea comb. Combing with a flea comb is probably the most reliable method of diagnosis. The cat should be thoroughly combed all over the body and the scale that is collected on the comb should be viewed under a microscope. The scale may also be placed on a dark background and observed. These mites appear as white specks that move, hence the name "walking dandruff" mites.

Skin scrapings. Microscopic evaluation of skin is less accurate than flea combing in light infestation because only a small area of skin is evaluated. Skin scrapings are often done to rule out other itchy skin diseases like scabies, and the mite may be picked up in the process.

Acetate tape. Impressions of the skin with clear acetate tape can pick up mites, which can then be seen when the tape is placed on a drop of mineral oil on a slide and viewed under a microscope. This method also has the disadvantage of sampling only a small area.

In cases where mites cannot be found, but a parasite is suspected, your veterinarian may elect to treat for the disease and look for a response to the treatment.

Treatment

Although commonly used flea sprays, shampoos and powders may give temporary relief, more aggressive treatment is needed for long term success of walking dandruff mites. Treatment includes:

  • Ivermectin is an effective treatment for cheyletiellosis. It may be given by subcutaneous injection or orally. This drug is usually used every 1 to 2 weeks for at least 4 weeks.

  • Selamectin is a topical drug that is applied to the skin of cats between the shoulder blades. This drug shows promise in treating cheyletiellosis. It is applied monthly for at least two months.

  • Lime sulfur dips are effective, although clipping of the hair coat may be necessary in medium and longhaired breeds to get the best results. Dips may need to be done weekly for 6 to 8 weeks.

  • Whatever treatment is selected, it is important to treat all animals in the household. Everyday Solutions Rx adds: If you desire a much quicker, natural treatment, use our Sulfur based Mange Cream!

Home Care and Prevention

Treating the home environment may be necessary to prevent reinfestation. Wash all bedding and discard brushes and combs. Vacuum carpets and upholstery thoroughly and repeatedly and spray the house with a flea premise spray.

Although prevention is difficult, there are some steps you can take to lessen the occurrence. Avoid the animal while infested since these mites are highly contagious. Be sure to have any new animals evaluated by a veterinarian before they are admitted to your home. Cheyletiellosis can be contagious to people so anyone handling the pet should thoroughly wash their hands and use appropriate caution.

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