has information gathered from PetPlace.com:
Why some dogs develop demodicosis and others don't is not
understood. It is thought to be genetic; affected dogs have an
immune system defect that may be inherited, making it difficult to
keep the mites under control.
There are different forms of this disease: localized and
This form usually occurs in dogs younger than one year of age. There
is no breed or sex predilection. Affected animals are usually
healthy and have developed demodicosis as the result of a temporary
illness or a stressful event.
The first sign of localized mange might be thinning of the hair
around the eyelids, lips, mouth and the front legs – a typical
moth-eaten appearance. Prognosis is usually very good, and most
animals (90 percent) will recover spontaneously. About 10 percent
usually will become generalized.
Generalized demodicosis can begin as a localized case or can present
itself as an acute illness. It is frequently categorized according
to the age of the dog during the initial onset (juvenile or adult).
The main distinction between the two types is the result of
differences in predisposing factors and prognosis.
# Juvenile-onset generalized demodicosis has a more favorable
prognosis. Most of them will "self cure" as their immune system
matures, somewhere between eight months and three years, depending
on the breed of the dog. Everyday Solutions Rx adds: To boost the
immune system it is a good idea to give your pet healthy dog food
Afterall, dogs are just like humans...when we become
sick, we boost our immune system by taking vitamins so it is good
common sense to do everything you can to treat the PROBLEM not just
the symptom! # Adult-onset generalized demodicosis has a more
These animals develop demodicosis as a
consequence of another illness or immunosuppressive therapy. They do
not have a genetic predilection for demodicosis. Conditions
associated with adult onset demodicosis include cancer, endocrine
disease, metabolic disease or steroid therapy. Prognosis depends on
the underlying disease.
For the generalized form, a genetically inherited predisposition to
the disease has been found. For this reason, affected animals should
be neutered. Both females and males have the same ability to
transmit genetic predisposition to demodicosis. The generalized form
of the disease is much more difficult to resolve with therapy and
relapses after discontinuation of therapy are common.
What to Watch For
Clinical signs consist of numerous patches that appear on the head,
legs and trunk. These patches generally develop into large areas of
hair loss, and the breakdown of skin leads to the formation of
Demodicosis is diagnosed by the presence of symptoms and by
performing deep skin scrapings on affected areas. The mites can be
seen with the aid of a microscope. The mites are present on all
dogs, so alone they do not constitute a diagnosis of mange.
Localized. If your dog has localized demodicosis, it is important to
monitor him/her to establish whether the disease will stay localized
or it will progress into the generalized form, as prognosis varies.
You will be asked to bathe your dog using an antibacterial shampoo
and apply a lotion/cream on the affected area. Your pet will need
additional scrapings to monitor the progression or regression of the
disease every 2 to 3 weeks for 2 times.
Generalized. If your dog has juvenile onset generalized demodicosis
you will be advised to neuter your dog. Demodicosis can be an
expensive and frustrating disease to treat thus it is important not
to contribute to its perpetuation.
Treatment is necessary when disease is generalized. It includes the
treatment of secondary bacterial infections and eradication of the
If your dog is a collie, Sheltie or Australian shepherd, drugs like
ivermectin should never be used because they have the potential of
causing life threatening side effects in these breeds (tremors,
seizures, coma and death). Other breeds may occasionally have
problems with this type of medications but they are usually milder.
They include difficulty walking, circling, weakness in the back legs
Sarcoptic mange (also known as scabies) is a highly contagious
parasitic disease caused by a microscopic mite called Sarcoptes
scabiei that affects animals and people. These mites invade the skin
of healthy dogs and puppies and create a variety of skin problems.
Humans exposed to infested dogs commonly are affected.
Dogs of all ages may be affected, but sarcoptic mange is more common
in young animals. Cats living in close contact with affected dogs
may develop the disease. The mite prefers to live lives on the
surface of the skin, and does not survive for very long off the
The hallmark of the disease is intense pruritus that does not
respond to symptomatic treatment; the dog scratches and chews at
himself. There may also be papules (small red bumps) located on the
margins of the ears, elbows, hocks (ankles), chest and abdomen.
These lesions may become generalized. Other symptoms may include
patchy hair loss, and crusty sores. Symptoms are thought to be the
result of a severe allergic reaction to the mite. Just a few mites
can cause severe generalized pruritus (itchiness), which sometimes
persists after therapy due to the allergic component of this
disease. The incubation period (time until clinical symptoms become
apparent) can be as long as 3 weeks after exposure.
If left untreated, chronic skin lesions develop including increased
pigmentation, thickening and wrinkling of the skin, ulcerations and
draining tracts. Secondary bacterial infections are common due to
Pruritic (itchy) papules (small red bumps) can be found on the arms,
neck and waistline of affected humans. The sarcoptic mange mite of
dogs cannot reproduce on human skin, and lesions on humans regress
spontaneously in 12 to 14 days.
What to Watch For:
Presence of papules
The diagnosis of sarcoptic mange is based on three things:
Suggestive clinical signs. The rapid onset of pruritis and the rapid
progression of lesions should suggest scabies.
examination of skin scrapings. Mites are occasionally found on
microscopic examination of skin scrapings, but failure to find the
mite should not eliminate the diagnosis of scabies.
treatment. Treatment for scabies improves the condition.
Treatment should be carried out for the entire life cycle of the
mite, which is 3 weeks. All animals in the household should be
treated to reduce the possibility of re-infestation. Everyday
Solutions Rx Mange Cream works very quickly and is made with natural
products plus we also carry non-toxic products to treat the
environment at the same time. # Regular cleaning, vacuuming and
washing of bedding usually are sufficient to rid the household of
Mites do not survive for long in the environment. Regular cleaning,
vacuuming and washing of bedding usually are sufficient to rid the
household of the mites. Remember, mites can be transmitted to
humans, so care must be taken when handling an infested dog.
Prevention consists of avoiding contact with infected animals. Mites
do not survive very long in the environment, and direct contact is
necessary to become infected. All animals in the household should be
treated to reduce the possibility of re-infestation.
Cheyletiellosis is an itchy, scaling skin disease of cats and dogs
caused by infestation with Cheyletiella mites. It is often called
walking dandruff because when you examine an infested cat, you may
see that the "dandruff" is moving. The movement is actually caused
by the mites moving around under the scales. Although the mites
inhabit the entire body, the scaling and itching often seem worse
over the back.
Kittens and puppies seem to be more susceptible than older animals,
but infestation of adults is sometimes seen. The mite is transmitted
by close contact with infested animals. Since the mite can live for
a few days off the host, it is also possible to become infected
through environmental contamination. Poor sanitation and nutrition
and overcrowding can lead to infestation.
The discomfort of itching and the lesions the animal can cause to
himself by scratching is directly related to the impact of this
disease on the cat.
What to Watch For:
A medical history may reveal a scaly, itchy skin problem on one or
more of the animals in the home, often after a recent addition of a
new pet. These mites can temporarily infest people, so you may
experience an itchy rash on arms, belly, back and chest.
Your veterinarian will do a physical exam, which will probably
reveal the characteristic scaly skin along the cat's back. However,
not all animals show this distribution of lesions. These mites are
large compared to other mites and in cases of heavy infestation, you
can see them on the skin with a magnifying glass.
Other diagnostic tests may include:
Flea comb. Combing with a flea comb is probably the most reliable
method of diagnosis. The cat should be thoroughly combed all over
the body and the scale that is collected on the comb should be
viewed under a microscope. The scale may also be placed on a dark
background and observed. These mites appear as white specks that
move, hence the name "walking dandruff" mites.
Skin scrapings. Microscopic evaluation of skin is less accurate
than flea combing in light infestation because only a small area of
skin is evaluated. Skin scrapings are often done to rule out other
itchy skin diseases like scabies, and the mite may be picked up in
Acetate tape. Impressions of the skin with clear acetate tape can
pick up mites, which can then be seen when the tape is placed on a
drop of mineral oil on a slide and viewed under a microscope. This
method also has the disadvantage of sampling only a small area.
In cases where mites cannot be found, but a parasite is suspected,
your veterinarian may elect to treat for the disease and look for a
response to the treatment.
Although commonly used flea sprays, shampoos and powders may give
temporary relief, more aggressive treatment is needed for long term
success of walking dandruff mites. Treatment includes:
is an effective treatment for cheyletiellosis. It may be given by
subcutaneous injection or orally. This drug is usually used
every 1 to 2 weeks for at least 4 weeks.
Selamectin is a topical drug that
is applied to the skin of cats between the shoulder blades. This
drug shows promise in treating cheyletiellosis. It is applied
monthly for at least two months.
Lime sulfur dips are effective,
although clipping of the hair coat may be necessary in medium and
longhaired breeds to get the best results. Dips may need to be done
weekly for 6 to 8 weeks.
Whatever treatment is selected, it is
important to treat all animals in the household. Everyday Solutions
Rx adds: If you desire a much quicker, natural treatment, use our
Sulfur based Mange Cream!
Home Care and Prevention
Treating the home environment may be necessary to prevent
reinfestation. Wash all bedding and discard brushes and combs.
Vacuum carpets and upholstery thoroughly and repeatedly and spray
the house with a flea premise spray.
Although prevention is difficult, there are some steps you can take
to lessen the occurrence. Avoid the animal while infested since
these mites are highly contagious. Be sure to have any new animals
evaluated by a veterinarian before they are admitted to your home.
Cheyletiellosis can be contagious to people so anyone handling the
pet should thoroughly wash their hands and use appropriate caution.
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