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Neem

 
 

More Information About Neem

The following information was gather from MedPub.gov (a service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health)

1) Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review.
Subapriya R., Nagini S. , Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.

Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. This review summarises the wide range of pharmacological activities of neem leaf. PMID: 15777222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2) Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides · Boeke SJ, · Boersma MG, · Alink GM, · van Loon JJ, · van Huis A, · Dicke M, · Rietjens IM. Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8031, 6700 EH, The Netherlands. The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 microg/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 microl/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as an insecticide should not be discouraged. PMID: 15261960

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES OF NEEM

Overview

Like neem's antibacterial and antiviral properties, its antifungal properties are often a given among scientists in India and other Asian nations where most of the current research is being conducted. Reports completed before 1992 are not available online but do indicate that compounds in neem help control fungi that can cause athlete's foot, ringworm and candida, the organism that causes yeast infections and thrush, as well as fungus that may affect plants. *

Among the most interesting more recent research is a report published in the Indian Journal of Pathological Microbiology http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt«stract&list_uids 785173&query_hle&itool=pubmed_docsum noting that extracts of both the leaf and the seed were active against several species of dermatophytes, which include three genera of fungi that commonly cause skin disease of people and animals (Epidermophyton, Trichophyton and Microsporum.) Additionally, several reports on an Indian spermicide made with neem oil note that it appears to affect candida.

Current Research Publication Type Book Chapter UWI Author(s) Mitchell, Sylvia; Ahmad, Mohammed; Robinson, Dwight; Young, Ronald; Morrison, Errol Author, Analytic Mitchell, Sylvia A.; Curtello, S.; Millar, M.; Chin, Melanie; Patrickson, D.; Ahmad, Mohammed H. Author Affiliation, Ana. Biotechnology Center Title, Analytic The propagation of Jamaican medicinal plants and testing of formulations from these plants Author, Monographic Mansingh, Ajai; Young, Ronald E.; Yee,Trevor H.; Delgoda, Rupika; Robinson, Dwight E.; Morrison, Errol Y.; Lowe, Henry I. Author Role Editors Title, Monographic Utilization of natural products in Developing Countries: Trends and needs Place of Publication Kingston, Jamaica Publisher Name The Natural Products Institute, University of the West Indies Date of Publication 2002 Page(s) 162-67 Abstract Plant biodiversity is threatened by the widespread collection of wild plants by people; loss of habitats due to industrialization, agriculture and urbanization; introduced species; pollution and from natural disasters. The Biotechnology Center is examining ways to use tropical plants in a sustainable way to prevent loss of biodiversity. A three-pronged approach is being taken: formulation of bioactive products, laboratory determination of bioactivity, and tissue culture multiplication/conservation. Products were made according to the Jamaica Bureau of Standards guidelines. The bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against bacteria and fungi was carried out using standard microbiological methods. The micropropagation of plants previously confirmed to have medicinal qualities was carried out using previously published methods (Mitchell et al 1995). Bioactive formulations using neem oil as the active component have been developed and successfully field tested. Neem disinfectants decreased the bacterial load on the floor of a food processing plant by 94%, decreased insect attack on callallo by 100% and controlled post harvest fungal attack of yams by 83%. In the lab, 2% neem incorporated into PDA plates was able to completely prevent fungal growth when inoculated with infected yam tubers, and significantly decreased the growth of eight pathogenic bacteria, also at 2%. The following Jamaican plants have successfully been initiated and multiplied in tissue culture: Neem trees (Azadirachta indica), Leaf-of-Life (Bryophyllum pinnatum), Garlic (Allium sativum) and Fever grass (Andropogon citratus). These were successfully initiated from seeds, leaves, cloves and axillary buds respectively. Multiplication rates of 4.3-12.2 after a four week passage have been obtained for neem on a modified basal medium alone or supplemented with 0.5. mg/1 BAP. Over 800 neem plantlets are in culture which will be at least 5,000 by within a month. It is intended to develop an in vitro collection of medicinal plants grown in Jamaica. With the approach taken above, it is hoped that interest can be developed so that the large numbers that can be gained through micropropagation can be fully utilized for the betterment of us all. Keywords biodiversity; neem; garlic; tissue culture; medicinal plants; plant micropropagation;

Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents. 2005 Mar;5(2):149-6. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review. Subapriya R, Nagini S. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt«stract&list_uids 777222&query_hle&itool=pubmed_docsum

Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. This review summarises the wide range of pharmacological activities of neem leaf. Publication Types: Review PMID: 15777222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Basic Microbiol. 2004;44(2):106-13. Inhibition of patulin production by Penicillium expansum cultured with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts. Mossini SA, de Oliveira KP, Kemmelmeier C. Department of Biochemistry, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa PR Brazil. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt«stract&list_uids 069669&query_hle&itool=pubmed_docsum

Aqueous extract of the leaves of neem [Azadirachta indica A. JUSS (Meliaceae)] was tested in vitro for antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum. Patulin production was inhibited during cultivation, when concentrations higher than 50 mg/ml of neem leaf extract was added to the culture medium. Analyses of mycotoxin production were performed by TLC and HPLC. Fungal growth and colony characteristics, in the presence of the extract, were investigated and compared with extract-free cultures. Copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim PMID: 15069669 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jul 2;51(14):3966-72. An efficient method for the purification and characterization of nematicidal azadirachtins A, B, and H, using MPLC and ESIMS. Sharma V, Walia S, Kumar J, Nair MG, Parmar BS. Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt«stract&list_uids 822931&query_hle&itool=pubmed_docsum

Azadirachtin A enriched concentrate containing 60% active ingredient (a.i.) was prepared from the methanolic extract of the de-fatted neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernels. Azadirachtins A, B, and H, the three major bioactive constituents of neem seed kernel, were purified from this methanolic concentrate by employing reverse phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), using methanol-water solvent system as an eluant. The three pure azadirachtin congeners thus obtained were characterized by their unique mass spectral fragmentation, using electrospray probe in positive ion mode (ESI). All three azadirachtins exhibited nematicidal and antifungal activities. Azadirachtin B was the most effective against the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis (EC(50) 96.6 ppm), followed by Azadirachtin A (119.1 ppm) and H (141.2 ppm). At 200-ppm concentration, the test compounds caused 50-65% mortality of Caenorhabditis elegans nematode. Azadirachtin H showed the highest activity against the phytophagous fungi Rhizoctonia solani (EC(50) 63.7 ppm) and Sclerotium rolfsii (EC(50) 43.9 ppm), followed by B and A. The isolation of pure azadirachtins A, B, and H directly by MPLC purification from its concentrate and their characterization by ESIMS are unique and less time-consuming. PMID: 12822931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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